WhitePaper – Update on 27.04.2021

GMT+2 : 24:00 (time)

Introduction:

The Blockchain uniquely transforms the world. It enables businesses, governments and other organizations to better manage their workflow and improve their systems with better solutions. Now, the way we store, access and use data is changing to improve the endless cycle of technological growth. It also has an impact on other aspects of our technology, including how we entrust a network.

A Blockchain can be used in three different ways: private, public, consortium and hybrid. If you’ve read about blockchain in the past, you may have an idea of how private and public blockchain works. For those who don’t know, we’ll discuss them in detail below.

            However, the third way, ie a hybrid, could have an impact on different industries. The SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain is a mix of both worlds, both private and public Blockchain. This gives organizations better control over what they want to achieve, rather than changing their plans to limit technology.

The use of Blockchain technology can be done both financially and non-financially. With the help of a Blockchain, it becomes impossible to manipulate data or hack the system. Opening the public Blockchain brings people from all over the world together, while the private Blockchain ensures that a closed ecosystem can thrive with Blockchain capabilities as well.

In this article, we will go through the SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain and what it has to offer. We will also discuss the definition of SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain and understand it from the inside out. But first, let’s check the private and public Blockchain.

What is a Public Blockchain?

As the name suggests, the public Blockchain is public in nature. When the Bitcoin whitepaper appeared, the Blockchain was also mentioned in its public form. It also means that the public Blockchain is open to everyone and anyone can participate.

However, the question is why would anyone join a public Blockchain? Here comes the incentive that a public Blockchain can provide. Instead, this improves the number of users, improving the health and growth of the Blockchain. Bitcoin is doing exceptionally well.

For example, miners can participate and provide computing power to solve complex algorithms. By doing so, a transaction or block is exploited. On the other hand, miners are motivated because they receive Bitcoin for their work. There will always be users and workers in the environment of a public Blockchain, to make it work smoothly. Fluidity is important and therefore stimulation maintains it.

Another example of a public Blockchain includes NEO, Ethereum and so on.

Anyone, without limitations, can create a public Blockchain.

What is a private Blockchain?

Now that we have a clear picture of what the public Blockchain has to offer, let’s move on to the private Blockchain. As you might have guessed from the name, the private Blockchain is private.

In a private Blockchain, the parties limit the Blockchain’s access to its users. Users must have access to the network before they can use it. Also, access can only be taken from the authority that manages the private Blockchain.

Because it is a private Blockchain, things can change as they like. For example, the administrator may limit transactions based on their nature, speed, or intent. The control here gives the private Blockchain an excellent use case for companies or organizations that want to benefit from the technology of a Blockchain, but in a closed environment.

Another thing to note here is that the private Blockchain is not completely closed to public access. They can be accessed according to what the administrator has established.

For example, Quorum is a private Blockchain that uses the Ethereum network. It uses a new consensus mechanism and also has strict confidentiality of transactions / contract. J.P.Morgan is the creator of the Quorum. Other notable examples include Hyperledger and Corda.

Definition of SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain

The Hybrid SourceLess Blockchain is best defined as a Blockchain, trying to use the best part of private and public Blockchain solutions. In an ideal world, a SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain will mean both controlled access and freedom.

The SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain architecture is distinguished by the fact that they are not open to everyone, but still offer Blockchain features such as integrity, transparency and security.

As usual, the SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain architecture is completely customizable. SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain members can decide who can participate in the Blockchain or what transactions are made public. This brings out the best in both worlds and ensures that a company can work with stakeholders in the best possible way.

We hope you have a clear view of the definition of SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain. For a much better picture, we recommend checking out some SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain projects. XDC is one of those projects that takes advantage of both public and private Blockchain. It is created and managed by XinFin, a Singapore company.

Verifiable transactions

Even if the transactions are not made public, but are still verifiable when necessary. Each transaction that takes place on the SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain platform can be kept private and always open for verification when needed. As the Blockchain is used, its most important aspect works here. Immutability. It ensures that each transaction is written only once and cannot be changed in a timely manner.

So will it be secure in comparison to the public or private Blockchain? The answer is yes. Even if a set of people control it, they cannot change the immutability and security of transactions. They can only control transactions that are made public and that are not.

How do users work in the Hybrid SourceLess Blochchain?

Once a user receives the grant to access the SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain platform, he can fully participate in the Blockchain’s activities. It shares equal rights to make transactions, view them or even attach or modify transactions. However, one thing that is kept secret is the identity of the users from the other participants. This is done to protect user privacy.

When a user trades with the other user, then only his identity is revealed by the party he is dealing with. To ensure that the above identification process is done correctly, companies and organizations perform KYC (Know Your Customer) to make it work. In particular, financial institutions must manage it correctly, as they cannot allow the transaction to be performed by a user who is not entirely familiar with the Blockchain.

The anonymity of the public state

Even when the SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain has limited anonymity for users participating in the network, public anonymity is still maintained. In this way, no one outside the network can know about users. This leads us to an interesting intersection of both public and private systems.

The hybrid network provides all the critical features of a public Blockchain, such as secure, transparent, immutable, and decentralized, but also restricts the ability to access, view, or change transactions in any way. Also, not everyone can use the network, which ensures that confidential information does not leave the network. Thus, SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain promotes more security because it uses both features.

Let’s verify the advantages of SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain.

The advantages of SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain

Now we know what SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain is. We also have a clear understanding of other types of Blockchain: i.e. private and public. Now, it’s time to list the benefits of SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain and what it has to offer.

It works in a closed ecosystem: the number one advantage of SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain is its ability to work in a closed ecosystem. This means that companies or organizations do not have to worry about leaking their information when taking advantage of Blockchain technology.

Change the rules when necessary: Companies are changing. The good news is that SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain needs to change. The nature of the change depends on what the SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain is trying to do. However, do not expect to change the data or change the transactions in a hybrid system that manages the band register or user identity for verification purposes.

51% attack protection: Unsourced hybrid Blockchain is immune to a 51% attack because hackers cannot access the network to carry out the attack.

Protecting privacy while still communicating with the outside world: Even though the private Blockchain is best for privacy issues, they are limited when it comes to communicating with the outside world. Many companies may want to maintain confidentiality, but need to set up their Blockchain so that they can communicate with all their shareholders, including the public.

Low transaction cost: Another added benefit of using SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain is that you have a low transaction cost. Transactions need to be cheap because it requires a few nodes to check them. The strongest nodes in the network make it easy to verify the transaction, which can take thousands of nodes in the public Blockchain. Transaction fees can be reduced to as much as $ 0.01 per transaction.

Source Use cases Sourceless Hybrid Blochchain

For a better understanding, let’s now move on to some of the use cases for SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain.

Hybrid IoT

The first use case we want to discuss is Hybrid IoT. The Internet of Things can be difficult to manage with a complete public Blockchain solution, as it will provide hackers with free data for mapping nodes or even hacking them. With SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain, devices can be placed in a private network with access to those who only need them. Some aspects of the network can be made public depending on the data to be shared. A hybrid approach can solve many security issues.

Finance and global trade

Even finances can take advantage of the SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain. XinFin uses a Blochchain Hybrid SourceLess using Ethereum for the public component, while Quorum is for the private component of their solution. Their goal is to provide a global platform for financing and trade using hybrid technology. They use DPOS (Proof of Delegated Stake).

Banking

A SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain can be an ideal solution for banking. Because banks need to solve problems internally and also secure users’ information, they can use this approach. Even Ripple, a more concentrated centralized cryptocurrency, can move to a SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain network if a change is needed.

Supply chain

Supply chains can benefit greatly from the SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain system. Because the supply chain is huge, it is essential for them to become hybrid. Neither private nor public Blockchain can work. Many supply chain logistics companies have already started to implement it.

A great example of using SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain in the supply chain is the IBM food trust. They aim to improve efficiency throughout the entire food supply chain. It is a network in which everyone participates, including farmers, wholesalers, distributors and others. Walmart is also an active player in this project.

 

Governments

Blockchain can change the way governments work. Even governments know this and have begun the process of using the Blockchain in their governance. For example, the government can use the Blockchain to vote, to create public identification databases, to record complex data, to automate procurement, to provide social / humanitarian assistance, and so on.

To make all this possible, you will need SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain. It gives the government the control they need and allows the public to access it. The total private or public Blockchain will not work because it either prevents the user from accessing or reveals too much data. Proper control of the Blockchain can ensure that the government stays in control while taking advantage of Blockchain technology.

Business services

Last but not least, we will also see a big change in business services thanks to SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain. It can not only be used to build open-source technology, but also enterpriselevel solutions. For example, companies can use SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain to automate their services and improve their reliability, trust and transparency for both employees and end users – industries such as aviation, supply chain, etc.

Public Blockchain: Definition

The public Blockchain is open to everyone, where anyone can participate. The private

Blockchain is controlled by the owners and access is limited to certain users. SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain is a combination of public and private Blockchain. This means that some processes are kept private and others public.

Transparency: the public Blockchain is completely transparent; the private Blockchain is transparent only to users who are granted access. The source of transparency SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain depends on how the owners set the rules.

The public Blockchain stimulates participants to develop the network. The private Blockchain is limited and therefore does not have an incentive similar to that of a public Blockchain. SourceLess Hybrid Blochchain can opt to stimulate users, if desired.

Use case: Can be used in almost any industry, good for public projects, but also good for creating cryptocurrencies for commercial use. The private Blockchain is excellent for implementing the organizational Blockchain because it requires complete control over their workflow. The hybrid is the most suitable for projects that cannot become private or public and lack trust. The supply chain is an excellent example. It is also effective in banking, finance, IoT and others.

 

Are the hybrid and the consortium different?

On the surface, it may sound identical, but this is not the case. Both federated and hybrid use a different approach and have their own unique feature. By knowing these features, you will be able to acquire and choose knowledge for your business or organization.

Let’s see how SourceLess Hybrid Blochckchain vs Consortium Blockchain crashes.

Blockchain Consortium

One group manages the consortium’s Blockchain. The group decides how the Blockchain will work. There is also limited access, and the group decides who gets the access first. The advantages of strict access are obvious. For example, limited access means faster transactions, high scalability and better transaction confidentiality.

Sourceless Hybrid Blockchain

SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain is a combination of public and private entities. The best way to describe it is to use a public Blockchain in which a private network is hosted. This means that there is a restricted participation that is controlled through the private Blockchain.

Technically, it works by generating blocks of hash data using the private network and then storing this data in public without compromising data confidentiality.

Unlike the federated Blockchain, the SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain offers flexible control over the Blockchain. This means that control over shared data is not ideal and is not better than that of a federated one. The best case for using SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain is scalability and decentralization.

SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain

Multi-property Blockchain (multi-assets), cross-chained-multi-Blockchain, public (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Cardano, Stellar, etc.) and private (DLT) with support for adding (migrating or creating) tokens, trading through the integrated DEX and CEX.

SourceLess Blockchain Attributes:

The size of the Blockchain is extremely small, allowing the existence of nodes in only 1

MB of data through a modified version of zk-SNARKs [Zk-SNARK is an acronym meaning “ZeroKnowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge”. A zk-SNARK is cryptographic evidence that allows a party to demonstrate that it has certain information without disclosing that information]).

Cross-Blockchain – transactions and data – allows reading-writing-authorization intraBlockchains.

Transactions in any Blockchain can be done with minimal cost, and with the help of the Ccoin Network ecosystem can be completely free of cost (whether we are talking about BITCOIN, ETHEREUM or any other Blockchain – with their assets) if they are made by STR as fuel.

The number of transactions increases exponentially through the direct delegation of affiliated nodes, but also the hybridization of the Blockchain (SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain) as an autonomous support in authorizing and confirming up to 100,000 transactions / second (TPS), comparable to VISA (24,000 transactions per second). second (fastest processor at the moment), and crypto-ecosystem (Ripple – with 15,000 transactions / second).

Governance – autonomous, democratic – through the vote of the owners.

GPT-3 (construction) & Formwelt (communication and integration) AI – embedded in ARES (SourceLess Blockchain programming language – governed by AI).

These will make implementation easy (as well as building websites or applications) even for those without IT skills.

WEB from scratch with address mapping (domain street), addresses that will be used in your ease of trading (simple name to remember and use) but also to guarantee identity (KYC & AML).

Shared hosting for all users – both individual and business owners.

Web environment in which users have hybridized p2p connection but also hosting with self-balancing (space efficiency used is 90%) compared to the current – 52% – resources are limited to 90%, having prepared in stand-by an instant accessible need of 10%, but also provides the space lending of any member, this being directly rewarded with 90% of the value of the space; the remaining 10% being disposed in the Blockchain master account and covers the costs of hybrid spaces (owned by SourceLess INC).

Carbon-free, environmentally friendly and resource-preserving, by reducing the Blockchain itself and reducing the resources required.

Internal merchant – built – allows acceptance for payment by cryptocurrencies or other payment methods (FIAT – fiat currency) to any owner or user of Ccoin Network & SourceLess Blockchain.

The STR web considered as an application, called APPLess, made in SourceLess Blockchain will have the following attributes:

  • You can check the integrity of a data without disclosing that data (high degree of security).
  • Check for the correct execution of resource-intensive calculations or in other cases of very low speed due to the limitation of miners and nodes that check and certify.
  • Significant scalability benefits, here you can apply DLT on Blockchain in a way with extremely high efficiency.

Efficiency compared to a Dapp on Ethereum

For the Ethereum network to run a Dapp, every node and miner in the network must run the same calculation. This is extremely inefficient. The entire network must execute and write that Dapp, and certify it.

Compared to running an AppLess, SourceLess is run once by its developer on its own node, after which all other nodes can only check the associated proof (SnarkS). The same argument can be made for SNARK-powered Layer 2 Shards on Ethereum, however Daps are still burdened by the limited flow of the main chain, while an AppLess in SourceLess benefits from the Blockchain’s scalability potential due to its brief nature and the factors explained above.

Workflow – AppLess on SourceLess Blockchain

  • Run the AppLess source code (multi-languages)
  • Runs SNark code via function call in SourceLess
  • Start the data to be executed in SourceLess
  • Calculations run in Blockchain
  • Returns a SNark proof that will be attached to the street address (of SourceLess

Blockchain)

  • SourceLess Blockchain executes transactions based on SNark proof

In this way we have the possibility to minimize the enormous capacity (effective space) of any Blockchain and reduce it to enormously small dimensions – up to 1mb of data, making possible the existence of personal nodes, so that any wallet attached SourceLess can check transactions with enormous speeds and with the minimum of resources.

Addressing in SourceLess Blockchain

Considering the whole ecosystem, we believe that the best way to apply the services of the Blockchain but also of the DLT is to offer as a public address, both in Web3, IOT, DLT (hosting and processing large database), starting from to address.

The address mapping considered is in the form STR. Name, both for personal space (wallet and space) and for the Business part, STR.company, allowing 128 characters after STR.54 characters (numbers and letters, public address that will help a simple and clear identification for the use of all services and paths in the ecosystem.

Detailing SourceLess Web services

Considering the data from Wikipedia (Internet Protocol version 4 provides 232 (4,294,967,296) addresses) of April 21, 2021, we consider that there is a real need to provide a concrete evolution on the processing of data from the current web, both addressing, locating and processing /execution.

Remapping the web, in the SourceLess vision, the domain names type applied both as web, but as identifier in Blockchain, but also as personal or business spaces (as hosting this time) would offer enormous benefits, both by ownership of personal space or in the SourceLess DLT database, as well as communication channels, which this time are not actually based on http, ftp, or other classic communication channels.

Communication applied on STR.domain

The best way out of many possible variants, applied on Blockchain is peer to peer communication, having a central point as data support and live 100% of the time is the network and torrent communication.

Much higher processing speeds, upload and download, the security given by the Blockchain, both as data protection and the impossibility of counterfeiting or identity theft, the street name being subject to KYC and AML rules, give a perfect solution of cyber security.

The speed calculations give, in parallel, a speed of at least 10X higher than that of the current web.

The storage space used now has a global efficiency of about 52%, the remaining 48% consuming both energy and financial resources from users and businesses.

Attacks of any kind both against IPs and data become impossible, as well as accidental or deliberate leakage of personal data becomes impossible, as long as all data is under the direct applicability of Blockchain encryption.

Effectively when using the network, theoretically many of the risks posed by the current web disappear.

Hiding the identity, copying the identity of another user, the insecurity of any transaction, simply disappear due to the Blockchain applied on the web, without limiting the use of the web in its full functionality.

NOT only are we not opposed to existing websites or social media channels, or any other existing businesses on the current World Wide Web, but on the contrary, they can be completely mirrored and uploaded, as they are now, the preparation data for migration will be done internally, without the need for other specific operations.

How BitTorrent works

When you download a webpage like this, your computer connects to the web server and downloads the data directly from that server. Each computer that downloads the data downloads it from the central server of the web page. This is how much of the web traffic works.

BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer protocol-  a group of computers that download and upload the same torrent) transfer data between them without the need for a central server.

Traditionally, a computer joins a BitTorrent swarm by uploading a .torrent file to a BitTorrent client. The BitTorrent client contacts a “tracker” specified in the .torrent file. The tracker is a special server that keeps track of connected computers. The tracker shares its IP addresses with other BitTorrent clients in the swarm, allowing them to connect with each other.

Once connected, a BitTorrent client downloads bits from torrent files in small chunks, downloading all the data it can get. Once the BitTorrent client has some data, it can then start uploading that data to other BitTorrent clients in the swarm. This way, everyone who downloads a torrent also uploads the same torrent. This speeds up everyone’s download speed.

If 10,000 people download the same file, don’t put too much stress on a central server. Instead, each download program contributes to the upload bandwidth for other download users, ensuring that the torrent stays fast.

Importantly, BitTorrent clients never download files from the tracker. The tracker participates in the torrent only by keeping track of BitTorrent clients connected to the swarm, not even downloading or uploading data.

All the above applied – lead to a stable, secure and very economical web, both in terms of resources and capabilities.

No one in the network is obliged to attach or share unless he voluntarily supports, or is interested in distributing that data, or is even paid to rent a piece of space.

Attributes in SourceLess Web

Governance – autonomous, democratic – through the vote of the owners.

GPT-3 (construction) & Formwelt (communication and integration) AI – embedded in ARES (SourceLess Blockchain programming language – governed by AI).

What will make implementation easy (as well as building websites or applications) even for those without IT skills.

Other tasks for users will be the processing or use of various expensive programs, such as Office suites, or graphics, design, all, however, will be made available to users as predefined tools in the containers in their pages (their DLT space) as long as they have a domain name, both personal and business.

What is GPT-3?

Generative Pre-Training Transformer 3 is an autoregressive language model that uses deep learning to produce human-type text. It is the third-generation language prediction model in the GPT-n series created by OpenAI, an artificial intelligence research laboratory in San Francisco.

What is Formwelt?

FORMWELT is a coding language for language and meaning. It is a language system based on ordinance to acquire definition. Its core consists of about 320 references: you might think of them as words with concrete meaning that explain each other without gaps that could impede the flow of information and build a precise meaning. The core is semantically self-sufficient. It contains the basic concepts that are needed to describe any conceivable or perceptible phenomenon. 2015—2021 Gitta and Ralf Peyn

These AI language engines will make it possible to build any web page or application in SourceLess Web platform easily and without the need for extensive knowledge in IT or programming, these being open source, will greatly improve the quality of the web by their very development.

For organizations of any kind, you could easily apply usage rights, with the certification given by the unique address, as well as the encryption from the enrollment of any data, having a double role, that of ensuring data protection, but also the possibility of remote verification or certification, in real time.

The need for “backup” disappears, it is automatically downloaded and written in real time in DLT.

The need for firewall or antivirus protection, or any type of malware, as well as ransomware, disappears due to private keys held only by the roles executed within the platform.

The communication means between the user / operator and the master account (the one in which it is operated) are given by the affiliation between the wallet / street name and the effective “master account” of the AppLess from SourceLess DLT.

Of course, roles with limited or full rights can be distributed by the administrator at any time only by accepting and assigning to the wallet str.slave or str.user, but also customer rights, visitor type, the applicability can be given in any direction, the limits being imposed only by the AppLess administrator.

Hosting sample data – how it works (ecosystem wallet-DLT-user’s roles)

SourceLess Hybrid Blockchain

Whitepaper v1.1

Authors: Alexandru Stratulat
alex@ccoin.uk 

Iulian Bondari
iulian@ccoin.uk 

www.ccoin.uk  

www.sourceless.io